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  • October 25, 2020 3:45 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Honoring an accomplished person whose passion for life reflects ours.

    All too often in everyday life as horticulturists we experience the philosophical mindset of people who view plants as an inferior form of life to animals and/or the inability to appreciate the unique features or aesthetics of plants. We are focused on changing this mindset.

    In this regard, the Horticulture Team at the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens would like to thank AZH for selecting us as a recipient of the 2020 Wendy Andrew Cultivation Grant. Despite being the “Covid-19” year, we were eager to share with the public our role in the Zoo and Garden dynamic.

    Choosing and planting a Southern live Oak (Quercus virginiana) was a conscious choice among our group because of the declining oaks in that area and the majesty of the mature tree.

    I personally started from seed (basically at no cost to the zoo during the pandemic) the Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum) and Verbena speciosa 'Imagination' to use as colorful, bee and butterfly attracting undercover plantings!

    We eagerly await a recognition sign that’s design is currently in progress and I am personally excited to see the finished result. Once the sign is installed we will send an updated photo.

    A lot of time and hard work went into this project and I hope you agree that we accomplished the respect it deserves.

    Thank you for this opportunity and for your support,

    Robin Vancil

    Horticulture Technician II Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens

  • September 30, 2020 12:11 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Join international experts on 13 – 15 October 2020 to discuss actions for protecting and sustainably using the world’s plant and fungal biodiversity for the benefit of people and the planet.


    This online symposium brings together experts to discuss findings presented in the report and to motivate actions for protecting and sustainably using the world’s plant and fungal diversity. The outcomes of the discussions will be used to inform policies and research aimed at exploring and sharing knowledge and benefits associated with plants and fungi around the world. 

    By holding it online, we’re able to bring together even more people globally – representing a diverse range of skills, experience and ethnic backgrounds.


    The programme is based around six themed sessions in which invited experts will address a topical question through presentations and a Q&A panel discussion:

    Session 1 – Collections 
    Why are they important for averting biodiversity loss? What should we do to help them evolve to enable us to address future challenges?

    Session 2 – Biodiversity loss
    What is driving the extinction rates?

    Session 3 – Plant and fungal uses
    How can we maximise the use of plant and fungal diversity to meet global challenges?

    Session 4 – Genomics
    How do we embrace novel approaches to studying plant and fungal biodiversity?

    Session 5 – Commercialisation
    How do we optimise the economic benefits of plant and fungal biodiversity in recognition of different stakeholders’ needs?

    Session 6 – Policies   
    How can we work globally to respect and enable Access and Benefit Sharing and CITES regulations, while increasing the diversity of plants and fungi being studied?

  • September 30, 2020 12:05 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Based on information from Hong Liu, Ph.D., Florida International University

    It was nearly 20 years ago that Hong Liu, Ph.D., was awarded the Catherine H. Beattie Fellowship. Working toward her Ph.D. at Florida International University (FIU), Hong used the fellowship funds to support her investigation of the impact of fire dynamics on a rare Florida keys endemic, narrowpod sensitive pea (Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis). The fellowship, as well as her research, were important steps on her path to becoming a plant conservationist.

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) supported Hong’s research on how rare plant species were being impacted by a fire management program designed to provide forage for the endangered Key deer, an endangered species. Though the pine rockland habitat supported many species adapted to fire and shallow limestone soils, Hong found that not all fires are created equal. In early summer, the sensitive pea sinks its resources into flowering and is most vulnerable. Fires occurring in this season prevented the plants from reproducing and were more likely to outright kill them. In contrast, late August fires allowed for the survival of plants and the recently matured seed. When the narrowpod sensitive pea was eventually listed through the Endangered Species Act, Hong’s dissertation (five years of field work and simulation modelling) became part of the backbone of the USFWS’s management plan on the refuge where she conducted her fieldwork.

    This fieldwork was central to the project’s success, and the Beattie funds helped get the fieldwork done. With freedom to use the funds as needed, Hong was able to buy needed field supplies and hire undergraduate assistants to help her collect data at her numerous plots. Perhaps more importantly, the Beattie Fellowship was a confidence boost for Hong: “To have my idea endorsed by a national plant conservation organization made me very proud.”

    In some ways, things have not changed much for Dr. Hong Liu since her Beattie Fellowship. She still conducts plant conservation research through FIU – only now as an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Environment and researcher in the FIU Institute of Environment. Her many research projects have focused on wild populations of endangered species. They include examining the impacts – and ways to reduce the impacts – of collecting pressure on wild orchids, the role of climate change on species, and the impact of biotic interactions on population persistence and expansion. In a current project, Hong is comparing populations of orchids that are rare in Florida (their northern distribution limit) to more populous communities of the same species in Cuba. She continues to work with pine rockland species, extending her studies to other rare plant species in this dwindling habitat type.

    Photo of South Florida pine rockland forest

    South Florida pine rockland forest.

    But Hong hasn’t forgotten the plight of narrowpod sensitive pea. She is presently seeking support for a restoration project that will help the species become established on higher-elevation islands in the Keys, to enable the plant to survive rising sea levels. Her forward-thinking work continues to make a significant contribution to the long-term survival of endemic species in Florida.

    Source - September 2020 Save Plants

  • August 19, 2020 8:23 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)


    August 17, 2020

    CONTACT: Devin Murphy   Global Wildlife Conservation

                       Lindsay Renick Mayer
     Global Wildlife Conservation                    lrenickmayer@globalwildlife.org    202-422-4671                                       San Diego Zoo Global
                       Public Relations

    WEBSITE: SanDiegoZooGlobal.org


    President of Cameroon Suspends Logging Concessions

    in Ebo Forest

    Conservationists Urge an Inclusive

    Land-use Planning Process to Determine Ebo’s Future

    Nearly three weeks after the government of Cameroon approved a forestry management unit that would destroy Ebo Forest in the country’s Littoral Region, on Aug. 11 President Paul Biya withdrew the decree establishing a logging concession and suspended the process for a second concession. Conservationists welcomed the news and are hopeful that the government will embark on an inclusive land-use planning process with local communities to determine the future of Ebo Forest.

    Ebo Forest is the ancestral land of more than 40 communities. The local Banen communities depend on Ebo Forest for food and traditional medicines. Any non-consensual development of the forest would heavily affect them. Before Cameroon’s independence in 1960, many communities lived in the forest, and their patriarchs and matriarchs are buried there.

    Chief Victor Yetina of Ndikbassogog and a representative of the Association Munen Retour aux Sources, and Ekwoge Abwe, manager of the San Diego Zoo Central Africa Program’s Ebo Forest Research Project, issued a joint statement following the news of the suspension of the logging concession: 

    “We welcome the suspension, for now, of logging plans in Ebo Forest, but are concerned that its fate remains unclear,” the statement read. “This decision must be the first step toward recognition of Banen’s rights and forest protection. We call on the government of Cameroon to adhere to its international commitments, and to promote participatory mapping and land-use planning with local communities. Land tenure reform must have, at its core, the full recognition of communities’ rights. We also call on international donors and NGOs to support these processes with technical expertise and resources, both in Ebo Forest and across the Congo Basin.”

    Ebo Forest is a hotspot for conservation research and discoveries. The forest provides critical habitat for many species of endangered primates, including gorillas, chimpanzees and red colobus monkeys. Researchers believe that the small population of gorillas in Ebo may be a new subspecies, because they are geographically distinct from other populations of western lowland and cross river gorillas. In 2005, researchers discovered that the tool-wielding Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees in Ebo Forest are culturally distinct from any other group of chimpanzees in Africa. They are the only chimpanzees to use tools to both fish for termites and crack hard-shelled nuts.

    The Cameroonian government had signed an international agreement to protect gorillas and their habitats on July 20, but two days later, it issued a decree establishing a logging concession in Ebo Forest. 

    “The president’s intervention to halt the imminent destruction of this unique forest is hugely welcome,” said Bethan Morgan, San Diego Zoo Global’s Central Africa Program head, who has been working to conserve the great apes of Ebo since she first observed gorillas there in 2002. “We hope that the international community will seize this opportunity to work with the government of Cameroon to make Ebo a showcase for long-term conservation, in harmony with very challenged communities. These communities have been responsible for the preservation of the treasures of Ebo to date, and an inclusive land-use planning process is now needed to fully share information, in order to make clear and calculated judgements about the future of the forest and its people.”

    Ebo Forest makes up half of the Yabassi Key Biodiversity Area, making it a site of global importance to the planet’s overall health and the persistence of biodiversity. It sequesters 35 million tons of carbon. Botanical survey efforts, supported by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, with Herbier National Camerounais, have resulted in the discovery of 29 species new to science, and the area is known to contain 52 globally threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Ebo is a proposed tropical Important Plant Area.

    “We are hugely happy with this positive news for Ebo,” said Martin Cheek, head of the team working on African Important Plant Areas at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. “Not only is Ebo of incredible global importance for its documented plant diversity, but it is the most exciting forest in Cameroon in terms of the high numbers of new scientific discoveries of species still being found.”

    Cameroon’s Minister of Forestry signed two orders Feb. 4, proposing the classification of two forestry management units for timber extraction in Ebo Forest. The units would have destroyed the entire gorilla habitat and would have leveled the western part of the forest. The orders were posted publicly March 9, but that did not give the local communities living around Ebo sufficient time and opportunity to provide their input.

    “Ebo Forest is such an important site for primate conservation,” said Dirck Byler, great ape conservation director at Global Wildlife Conservation and vice chair of the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Species Survival Commission’s (SSC) Primate Specialist Group. “With their habitat shrinking across Africa, it’s especially good news that Ebo can continue to provide a home for gorillas and chimpanzees. Hopefully it will be protected from any unsustainable development in the future."

    In April, more than 60 conservationists, including experts from the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group and Global Wildlife Conservation, signed a letter to Cameroon’s Prime Minister Joseph Ngute, asking that the plans for the logging concessions be put on hold and the government work with local communities to develop a sustainable land-use plan. They argued that adopting a more inclusive process would signal to Cameroon’s international partners during this critical year for biodiversity that the government intends to honor its commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    About Global Wildlife Conservation

    Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC) conserves the diversity of life on Earth by safeguarding wildlands, protecting wildlife and supporting guardians. The organization maximizes its impact through scientific research, biodiversity exploration, habitat conservation, protected area management, wildlife crime prevention, endangered species recovery and conservation leadership cultivation. Learn more at globalwildlife.org.

    About San Diego Zoo Global

    Bringing species back from the brink of extinction is the goal of San Diego Zoo Global. As a leader in conservation, the work of San Diego Zoo Global includes on-site wildlife conservation efforts (representing both plants and animals) at the San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, as well as international field programs on six continents. The work of these entities is made accessible to over 1 billion people annually, reaching 150 countries via social media, our websites and the San Diego Zoo Kids network in children’s hospitals in 12 countries. The work of San Diego Zoo Global is made possible with support from our incredible donors committed to saving species from the brink of extinction. To learn more, visit SanDiegoZooGlobal.org or connect with us on Facebook.



    Link includes: Photo: A field camera photo of a gorilla in Ebo Forest in Cameroon. Ebo Forest is home to a small population of gorillas that may be a new subspecies. The gorillas live about 200 kilometers away from any other groups of western lowland or cross river gorillas. (San Diego Zoo Global)

  • August 05, 2020 9:48 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    2014 AZH Plant Conservation grant recipient Dr Murphy Westwood recently published results from study partially funded by AZH for "In situ and ex situ genetic diversity of the endangered Georgia oak, Quercus georgiana"

    Effectively conserving biodiversity with limited resources requires scientifically informed and efficient strategies. Guidance is particularly needed on how many living plants are necessary to conserve a threshold level of genetic diversity in ex situ collections. We investigated this question for 11 taxa across five genera. In this first study analysing and optimizing ex situ genetic diversity across multiple genera, we found that the percentage of extant genetic diversity currently conserved varies among taxa from 40% to 95%. Most taxa are well below genetic conservation targets. Resampling datasets showed that ideal collection sizes vary widely even within a genus: one taxon typically required at least 50% more individuals than another (though Quercus was an exception). Still, across taxa, the minimum collection size to achieve genetic conservation goals is within one order of magnitude. Current collections are also suboptimal: they could remain the same size yet capture twice the genetic diversity with an improved sampling design. We term this deficiency the ‘genetic conservation gap’. Lastly, we show that minimum collection sizes are influenced by collection priorities regarding the genetic diversity target. In summary, current collections are insufficient (not reaching targets) and suboptimal (not efficiently designed), and we show how improvements can be made.

    Read more about this exciting project...https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2020.0102

  • June 24, 2020 4:07 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    One goal of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden’s conservation team is to increase the availability of plants that are native to our imperiled pine rockland habitat in South Florida. However, some species prove to be especially tricky to grow from seed and with the support of AZH we are now working towards unlocking the secret to their germination. Once we are successful, we will be able to grow these species in greater quantities, which will allow us to distribute them more widely through our outreach program the Connect to Protect Network as well as in habitat restoration projects in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties.

    The pine rockland is a fire dependent habitat and many species germinate abundantly after a fire, especially those growing in the herbaceous understory. Therefore, it is likely that at least some pine rockland species will produce seed whose germination is triggered by chemical signals from smoke.

    Navy Wells Preserve in Miami-Dade County three months after a fire in 2013 (photo by Jennifer Possley)

    By creating a smoke solution, we were able to bring the effect of fire into our seed lab. To catch all the water-soluble compounds of smoke we burned pine straw in a bee smoker and guided the smoke through a heater hose into a side-arm flask filled with water.

    Setup to create a smoke solution that can be used to test the effect of fire on seed germination.

    So far, we can report that using this smoke solution has improved germination in two species that were previously difficult to grow from seed. The most dramatic effect was in Blodgett’s silverbush (Argythamnia blodgettii) a federally listed species endemic to South Florida. But also, the germination of Pineland croton seeds (Croton linearis) improved significantly after the smoke solution treatment.

    Germination of Blodgett’s silverbush seeds without treatment (left) and after soaking in smoke solution for 24h (right).

    Besides testing how chemical signals from smoke can increase germination of pine rockland species we are now working to improve germination of additional species with different seed dormancy breaking methods, such as scarification, desiccation, and gibberellic acid.

    We are very grateful for the support of this project from AZH!

    Sabine Wintergerst, Seed Lab Manager, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden

  • June 14, 2020 9:23 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    The alligator lizard Abronia campbelli is considered the most threatened Abronia species in Guatemala. Campbell’s alligator lizard is critically endangered due to habitat degradation and destruction. Habitat loss affects many species around the globe, but the impact can be especially drastic for an arboreal species with a naturally restricted distribution as A. campbelli. Local land-use change has originated from three different fronts: livestock and agriculture on private farms, firewood consumption from surrounding communities and subsistence farming from local families. Based on this, our strategies include the creation of biological corridors on private farms, accompanied by the creation of community forests to remove pressure on habitat restoration areas.

    With this project we begin to tackle the third component that drives habitat loss in the area: subsistence farming. We teamed up with 100 local families and turned a threat into a conservation opportunity. Now each smallholding used to grow food for a family will also serve to house biodiversity, reconciling local means of support with conservation. We believe that successful conservation is voluntary and locally driven, so our project focuses on making livelihoods compatible with the protection of biodiversity, resulting in long-term sustainable conservation strategies. 



    Our plan of action started with nursery maintenance actions designed to provide the native key forest species needed for the creation of the biological corridors. These activities consisted of seed collection, soil preparation, seed sowing, irrigation, fertilization, pest control and daily oversight to ensure general and ongoing care of the seedlings. Thanks to the support of Association of Zoological Horticulturists Conservation Fund and from the local community our nursery will produce approximately 15,000 seedlings exceeding the original project goal by more than 3 times.

    We have completed the 8 Site Planning sessions with each of the families participating in our project. We visited the plot to plan and map the reforestation areas. During these activities we noted that family plots varied greatly in size, because of this the number of trees was customized to each family according to the size of the land and reforestation strategy.

    Families responded to the project with great enthusiasm, wanting to participate with a wide variety of family owned plot sizes ranging from small yards at home (0.03 ha) to considerable land extensions (9 ha) within mountainous areas. Many families also had the desire to reforest their entire plot not just the edges, in order to create small forest patches.

    We knew we had to rise to the occasion and harness the level of participation that we obtained from the community. We multiplied our efforts in the nursery, which resulted in an unexpected but satisfactory expansion of the objectives and goals of the project. This new goal will not only meet the level of local participation but also the necessary scope of actions necessary to ensure the resilience of A. campbelli.

    Our habitat focused conservation work is accompanied by species reintroduction efforts through our captive breeding program. Right now, we are waiting for females to give birth, for families to liberate neonate A. campbelli in habitat remnants and in our previously reforested areas.

    What is next

    Build key allies in local communities through awareness-raising activities that culminate in tangible conservation actions, this is the foundation and key to the success of our conservation projects. However, the Conservation sessions, Nursery sessions and Conservation presentations in schools (all awareness activities in this project), are on hold since March due to the preventive measures against COVID - 19 imposed by the government of Guatemala. Social meetings are not allowed, schools are suspended, department borders are blocked, the country is under curfew and lockdown. We are in contact with families and local leaders to carry out the activities as soon as the situation changes. Due to the great progress in the other aspects of the project, we feel completely confident that when the restrictions in the country are lifted, we will achieve the project's goals and that the only change to the original plan will be in the scheduling of the activities.

    We are also waiting for the start of rainy season in order to begin reforestation activities with the families. I addition we already have established alternative methodologies to be prepared in case the reforestation is carried out under restrictions due to COVID - 19.

    Brad Lock, Oklahoma City Zoo

  • May 26, 2020 11:38 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Our Mangrove propagules are well on their way, happy and healthy, and ready for transplanting. There are over 1000, all from propagules collected here at The Florida Aquarium. We were scheduled for a planting at Veterans Park in St. Petersburg, Florida this month in partnership with Keep Pinellas Beautiful and St. Pete College.

    Also a second planting was tentative for mid May with the City of Tampa and Tree Inc. Both are on hold, with no set date for a definite reschedule. The St. Pete event is holding July 11th as a possibility only at this point. The Florida Aquarium did have to suspend our most recent internship program as well during this current Covid 19 situation. Our Horticulture intern was slated to have this as part of her required project, and she hopes to return as an Aquarium volunteer when things are back to normal to help continue this project.

    Mangrove propagule propagation area

    To date we have spent: $1046.42 of the $2000 grant. We do not plan to spend more until or unless this project is confirmed that is can be completed as intended. We will look for alternatives if needed. That being said, is the Committee assessing current Zoological circumstances and allowing for alternatives to the utilization of funds, or a facilities ability to complete their projects as intended?

    Thank you again for the opportunity of receiving this grant.

    Stephen Schwanebeck


  • May 21, 2020 11:48 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Ex-situ conservation of four ‘new’ and unprotected plant species at Parc Ivoloina, central-eastern Madagascar

    Summary Progress report for the Association of Zoological Horticulture

    May 2020

    In January 2020, Missouri Botanical Garden, on behalf of the Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group, was awarded $7470 for a project that aimed to conserve ex-situ, as growing plants at Parc Ivoloina, four newly discovered Malagasy plants known only from unprotected forests that are high threatened.  The four target species include: a species of Polyscias (Araliaceae), a species of Astrocassine (Celastraceae), a species of Rhopalocarpus (Sphaerosepalaceae), and a species of Vitex (Lamiaceae). These plants were located during previous fieldwork in the Ivoloina and Ifontsy River valleys, close to Parc Ivoloina, but, at that time, seeds were not available and the plants were not propagated.  To achieve the stated objective we will implement four main activities: 1) relocation and flagging of the target species in the wild by an experienced botanist; 2) identification of reliable local people who will be trained to monitor the phenology of the target species and to collect vouchered samples of mature seeds as these became available for dispatch to Parc Ivoloina; 3) accession and propagation of the seed samples at the native plant nursery at Parc Ivoloina; 4) plantation of the resultant plants within the Parc ensuring each plant is permanently tagged with its accession number.

    The field botanist identified for the first of these tasks was Patrice Antilahimena.  He was selected because he had been part of the team that had originally discovered these plants and thus knew them well.  Patrice has been working for 2 years in this area, is known and trusted by local people and knows which people could be reliably tasked to monitor phenology of the target plants and to collect seed samples.  Unfortunately, Patrice did not become available for this work until February 2020 and therefore his first fieldtrip for this project was in March 2020.  This trip coincided with the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in Madagascar but despite this Patrice was able to relocate the first of the target species: the presumed Astrocassine.  Patrice also selected a local person to monitor the phenology of the plant and collect mature seeds.  On 15th May 2020, Platini, the nurserymen at Parc Ivoloina received a seed sample consisting of 206 seeds of this species.  These seeds have now been sown.

    Unfortunately, the end of Patrice’s fieldtrip coincided with restrictions on movement imposed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in Madagascar, and consequently he was forced to delay his return home for a few days – leading to some extra expenditure on hotels and meals.  The situation in Madagascar with respect to the pandemic is obscure: until recently the State reported few cases and no deaths but, at the time of writing, many more cases are being reported and there have been two COVID-19 related deaths.  Many of the newly reported cases are Tamatave, the major town close to Parc Ivoloina and therefore travel in this part of the country have been severely restricted.  Consequently, at the moment, there can be no fieldwork in this area until the pandemic is under control and travel restrictions within Madagascar are lifted.  It is not possible to predict when these conditions will exist.  Whatever is next, it is certain that the implementation of this project will be much delayed.

    In conclusion to date this project has successfully sampled seeds from one of the four target species, but the timetable for work on the other species is uncertain.

    Young fruit of the possible “new” species of Astrocassine

    Seed sample of the supposed new species of Astrocassine received at Parc Ivoloina 15 May 2020

  • May 05, 2020 12:38 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    With our upcoming AZA accreditation, I took it upon myself to review and update our Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)/Safety Data Sheet (SDS) paperwork for the Horticulture department. I have had some really good ideas in my life, but this was not one of them. In reviewing the existing books, I found chemicals that we no longer use, found SDSs dating back in the ’90s and found more than a few roach egg casings. We had more than 250 SDSs to review. This was looking like an incredibly dumb idea. But who better to organize these than the OCD curator? Again, not my best idea.

                So, my first move was to rip (literally) the pages out of the book. And I gotta tell you that it felt really really good. We hadn’t used some of those papers in three decades. I then started printing out all new SDSs.

                After I printed out all new and updated SDSs, I noticed that not all SDSs are the same. My question is, why the heck not? We put men on the moon and can’t use one format for SDSs? So, I am going to review my process and let you know what I learned from this “project.” This is for your own good. Pay attention.

    • 1.      Never volunteer for this project.
    • 2.      If you are volunteered for this, say no, unless it is under threat of firing.
    • 3.      If you volunteer for this project, you are insane and deserve what you get.
    • 4.      Make sure you have an updated chemical list in your chemical shed (or locker, shoebox, trunk of your car, etc.).
    • 5.      Also keep a digital copy safe in the 10,000 files you are already keeping safe.
    • 6.      Make sure the SDS you are searching for matches the actual chemical you have. A lot of different companies make horticultural oil but match it to what you have (a huge pain in the buttocks).
    • 7.      Cross reference the EPA # and make sure they match.
    • 8.      Try to find the most updated copy (harder than it sounds and, again, buttocks are involved).
    • 9.      Don’t do what I did, which was print out more than 200 SDSs only to be told by my administrative assistant that she also needs a complete copy for her office AND I needed to download those copies onto a jump drive so she can update our online SDS database which was out of date.
    • 10.  Remember all those sheets I ripped out of the book with wild abandon? Well, now OSHA requires you to keep SDSs for 30 years. Who the heck knew that!? If you raise your hand, I will smack you at the next conference.
    • 11.  Keep all outdated SDSs, fool.

    • 12.  Keep a table of contents.
    • 13.  So, not only do I have two notebooks (A–L and M–Z).

                I also have an obsolete notebook of chemicals we no longer use, per OSHA—although I think I will have to change the title.

                That is actually a good idea, I just wished I had known that in paragraph two.

                So, it took me two weeks to do this project and I have aged five years. There is a ton of online data about keeping records and MSDSs. I Googled “saving MSDSs”

    and there were 3,690,000 documents. I read four. I recommend www.msdsonline.com/. It’s the rule, guys. Catch it before they catch you!

                So, this month’s word of advice: don’t volunteer, but if you do get stuck with this project, find someone on light duty… Good luck!

    ’Til next time.

    Denise Rogers

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